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教你三步搞定文献阅读

对于英文论文写作来说,文献综述是非常重要的,它不仅要求文献综述要作对,还要有一定的文献。这对于留学新生来说非常难受,因为文献需要积累。当然,文献的积累也要讲究方法,特别是在阅读文献的时候,下面就给大家讲解一下。

文献阅读,搜集文献,整理文献,阅读文献

搜集文献

在搜集文献这一步,我们也需要做到以下步骤:

首先,根据自己的课程内容,定位文献的搜索方向,同时可以拟定文献的收集大纲,明确收集目的、内容、时间范围和文献类别。

其次,确保文献的搜索具有进阶性。文献并不是一气呵成,在短时间内就可以全部搜集到的。我们需要根据论文或者考试的要求和内容,层层递进,不断打磨和斟酌我们对文献资料的需求。

接下来,关于搜索文献的途径,也是非常丰富:

1.图书馆资源:在美国大学的图书馆,不仅可以找到丰富的纸质书籍,还可以下载电子书,以及查找信息数据库,这些足以满足我们reading list的需求。所以,平时多跟导师沟通,然后要按照导师的线索搜集关键性资料。

2.网络资源:网上的资料也是应有尽有,可以通过搜索网站用关键词检索。但是我们一定要注重文献资料的学术性,可以在Google Scholar上进行查找,同时做好reference的记录。

3.交流研讨:包括平时的lecture,seminar,tutorial,workshop等等,都可以成为我们搜集资料的来源,但是也要注意做好记录哦!

最后,进入下一步,整理文献。

整理文献

在文献整理方面,我们不仅要注重文献分类,还要注意文献追踪。

文献分类。根据课题相关性,将看过的文献分类并归入子文件夹,一类泛读,一类精读。同时,根据文献重要性将其分类编号,以便今后再次查阅或者引用于论文。重要文献可以根据其重要程度在文件名前加001,002,003编号,然后再按名称排列图标,这样最重要的文献就会排在最前了。

注意文献追踪。重要文献以及连载类重要文章需要注意实时追踪。尤其是对数据库的定题、定词定期搜索,实现对每一篇重要文献的高效利用。

当然啦,在我们整理文献的时候,还可以利用一些软件进行整理归纳。

例如以Mendeley建立电子文献索引为主,并以云端同步PDF文献为主要储存手段,通过Everything,Google Scholar,桌面搜索软件,Onenote笔记等多种搜索手段,快速找到自己所要的信息。

阅读文献

阅读文献,最重要的就是高效。因为需要我们阅读的资料非常多,所以不仅要注重阅读速度,还要讲求阅读效率。

1.泛读

泛读也需要最佳的顺序,通过浏览整篇文献,我们就可以大致了解文章内容,从而判断文献对自己研究课题的价值。通常情况下,我们会先看摘要、引言,再看结论,最后看讨论和方法。

文章综述:明确文献标题,推测文章内容,了解文章写作基本目的。通过对文章主旨的介绍,了解文章的主要背景和摘要。

文章引言和结论:通过阅读文章的研究目的,研究内容和研究结论,大致了解文章的结构和思路,为进一步阅读奠定基础。

文章讨论部分和图表:文章的主体部分不仅包含文章的整体内容,还有一些列的图表和数据分析。因此,通过对这一部分的阅读,就可以对整篇文章进行清晰的把握,了解作者的方法论和分析手段。

2.精读

在对整篇文章进行泛读之后,我们就需要进行精读了,这样就可以对主题进行更加深入的理解和分析。

当然啦,在精读的过程中,我们也可以使用到以下这些技巧:

边读边做笔记。将阅读过程中,不懂的问题,经典的语句,以及分析的方法,记录下来进一步参考和学习。

集中阅读时间。避免零碎的阅读,才能提升阅读的效率。

联系和对比阅读文献。看文献切忌走马观花,毕竟我们需要将阅读的文献付诸于论文,所以一定要将文献进行联系和对比。

进阶性阅读。文献阅读也需要结构,有递进的阅读,注重文章前后联系。

3.思考文献

在对文献进行精读之后,我们就需要对文章进行一些列的问题思考,例如:

本文对我的论文或考试有哪些帮助?

作者的文章解决了哪些问题?但是又有哪些gap是需要我去发现和解决的?

本文有哪些优势?又有哪些不足?

本文对我今后的写作和选题有怎样的启发?

该类文章主题可以在未来有哪些发展方向?

在思考这些问题之后,我们就可以将自己的答案和理解记录下来啦!

以上就是关于文献阅读的一些讲解,建议留学新生们平时都花一点时间去阅读文献,这样子慢慢积累,对写作是很有帮助的。如果大家写不好Essay的话,可以看下Essay写作的小窍门


Craft art and painting art

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- Craft art and painting art,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了工艺美术和绘画艺术。工艺美术,包含的艺术类型是早期的艺术创造。工艺美术属于造型艺术的一种,借助美术技巧来制作出各项与使用相互联系而且有着良好观赏价值的工艺品,一般具备一定的双重性质,既属于物质类型的产品,还有着不同程度精神需求的审美性。绘画,在以往的艺术发展阶段中被人们称之为追求纯粹之美的艺术。绘画本身属于一项艺术语言,一般是以具象现象表现在人们面前的,以此将绘画人员的特征体现出来。对于不同类型的材质、题材以及表现方式来讲,可以将不同的内心世界有效的体现出来,这就是绘画艺术被称之为纯艺术的原因。绘画属于一项出纯粹的艺术,而工艺美术则是一项具备功能性的生活艺术,工艺美术主要是采取绘画的方式来达到装饰目的,绘画一般是将客观对象当成基本的描绘对象。

Under the background of economic development, social division of labor is more and more clear, for the previous architecture, painting and sculpture, is connected with each other, based on this, formed before the phenomenon of technology and art together, however, with the running of the society, this kind of phenomenon gradually separate, became a professional independence, long down exist independently. Specialization is the inevitable development process of history, and the differentiation of painting and craft is in the state of common development. At the same time, it also shows that it is going backwards. In this article, the focus of the study of arts and crafts and painting, through the study, only painting and arts and crafts linked together, can produce good results, to achieve the purpose of stable development.

Arts and crafts, in fact, is a new word, although its development in China's short time, but the type of art is included in the early art creation. In the past ancient times, arts and crafts belong to the artistic value of high manual art works, and modern arts and crafts in order to keep pace with the needs of social development, on the basis of inheriting the traditional arts and crafts, also introduced science and technology, the application of this technology to variety preservation, development, material production and technology. It can be seen from this that artistic works of craft type not only refer to the value created by the craftsman's own labor, but also involve the phenomenon of mechanized production and processing.

It is clearly pointed out in the Chinese art dictionary that the arts and crafts belong to a kind of plastic arts. By virtue of art skills, crafts that are interrelated with the use and have good ornamental value are generally of a certain dual nature. They are not only products of material types, but also aesthetic of different degrees of spiritual needs. Through detailed exploration, as a kind of art, arts and crafts contain a series of characteristics of art and have strong practical performance. In other words, arts and crafts do not completely belong to the products of social ideology. They have strong practicability and are regarded as an interdisciplinary discipline.

Painting, in the past stage of artistic development, was called the pursuit of pure beauty art. Painting itself belongs to an artistic language, which is usually expressed in front of people with concrete phenomena, so as to reflect the characteristics of the painters. For different types of materials, themes and expressions, different inner world can be effectively reflected, which is why painting art is called pure art. In the Chinese art dictionary, it is clearly pointed out that painting is an art, which mainly USES brushes, bamboo and knives to draw visual images on the plane of wood boards, cardboard and walls in the form of composition, modeling, color and light and shade treatment, so as to express the meaning that it wants to express. With the continuous improvement and innovation of science and technology, the types of painting materials are also increasing. For different materials, different types of painting are produced, such as oil painting, watercolor and ink painting. Therefore, painting is not only a visual creation based on two-dimensional plane, but also an abstract embodiment of the painter's research on natural space.

Industrial art is not only an artistic product, but also an embodiment of social life. It is not only a material product but also a spiritual product. When it is regarded as a material product, it enriches people's life and provides convenience for people's clothing, food, housing and transportation. When it is regarded as a spiritual product, it brings pleasure to people in the spiritual life and adds luster to life.

Ancient Chinese arts and crafts production personnel mostly craftsmen, its main is to make a living, learning a craft from relatives or the teacher who inherited craft, to their skills and master inherited from them, after a long time to the accumulation of formed valuable experience, see, handicrafts contains certain humanistic feelings.

Along with the continuous improvement and innovation of science and technology, arts and crafts gradually exceeded the phenomenon of mainly by the process, it belongs to a daily necessities, in the field of commodity circulation and consumption in the form of consumer goods flow to those who will consumption gradually, and with the people's cultural level of ascension, itself puts forward very high requirements for arts and crafts, arts and crafts based on market mechanism has received extensive attention in the environment. The increase of market demand make the manual artwork for the mass production, gradually formed a collection of production, wholesale and sales for the integration of market economy system, arts and crafts in meet the demand of times development to speed up the process on the basis of fine art market circulation, however, in the process of mechanized production also has many problems. As a carrier of material and spiritual development, arts and crafts are generally made in a crude way in the process of mass production, which completely violates the aesthetic requirements of early handicrafts. In the past, the traditional handicraft technology was gradually lost, with the emergence of many assembly line jobs for living. These workers do not need to think about the beauty of products, but only need to be trained before they can put into work. Take an art city and a stone carving city for example. Because people use machines and production lines, the wood carving works produced are basically the same. In the past, the older generation of wood carving artists are gradually getting old, while the remaining young people are unwilling to inherit the excellent wood carving culture because of the living type and lack of money. Therefore, no matter it is wood carving or stone carving, it is a miniature under the new era development background of arts and crafts. Under the background of the development of commercial era, the market of arts and crafts has changed obviously, but although the production efficiency has been improved, the aesthetic value of arts and crafts cannot be effectively reflected.

The main reason why the works are vivid is that they are formed from the deep heart of the artist, which also highlights the subjectivity and individuality of artistic painting to some extent. In ancient China, painting actually refers to intellectuals expressing their emotions, especially after the song dynasty, when literati paintings occupied an important position, which greatly reduced the social status of other handicraft arts.

At the current stage, with the rapid development of social economy, the art of painting in the era is gradually moving towards the trend of diversification, which is generally reflected in the following points: During the development of the existing market economy, painting has received extensive attention and become a popular investment. The purchase and collection of paintings have gradually become the mainstream trend of the upper class. Painting is a work of active thinking for painters. During the fierce competition in the art market, the thoughts of buyers gradually left the mainstream of painting works. The pursuit of pure spiritual world. Painting and life are separated from each other, these artists stay away from life, stick to themselves, forget the purpose of sales, do a wholeheartedly painting hobby personnel.

In the era of cultural development, there are different artistic styles for different aesthetic standards of painting. The current artistic development has a huge impact on painting, and excessive marketization will make the creation of painting a chaotic phenomenon with a severe form.

Arts and crafts and painting belong to two different types of art, however, it is often planned as a talk, the specific reason is that there is a deep connection between arts and crafts and painting. The foundation of arts and crafts involves three aspects: painting, decoration and craft. In terms of specific concepts, painting is a pure art, while arts and crafts is a functional art of life. Arts and crafts mainly use painting to achieve decorative purposes, while painting generally takes objective objects as basic painting objects.

The development trend of arts and crafts shows that they attach too much importance to functionality and mass production, and pay no attention to the reflection of product aesthetic value. In the development process at the present stage, painting and life are separated and isolated as a superstructure, which belongs to a pure artwork. This requires us to analyze and consider problems from the perspective of big art. Beauty comes from people's life. Basic art training should be conducted for craftsmen to encourage paintings to reflect the reality rather than the specious contemporary art.

From the above discussion, it can be seen that both arts and crafts and painting are important parts of fine arts. Arts and crafts make people's lives have obvious changes, and the half body belongs to a common carrier of material and spirit. Painting as an ideology, there is a close relationship between the two. In the context of rapid social and cultural development, the existing problems should be comprehensively analyzed to achieve the purpose of combining art and craft.

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Essay修改技巧大全

经调查,很多英国留学生都表示,在教授布置Essay的那一刻开始,自己就想着急急忙忙把Essay写好,然后就不用管了。如果大家这样做的话,那么大多数都是写不好Essay的,因为这会漏了修改这个重要的步骤。如果大家不知道怎么去修改Essay的话,下面就给大家讲解一下。

Essay修改技巧,Essay修改,Essay修改润色

最常出现的就是拼写错误和格式问题,很多时候匆匆忙忙找资料,写的时候也是边看资料边打字,很容易就出现打错字或者格式错误的问题,千万别小看这些问题,这都很容易给人造成不认真、马虎、潦草的感觉,即使你费了再大的力气去找资料和熬夜写作业,印象分都会被这些标点符号和错别字给扣光了。

还有很多同学写论文之前并不列提纲,也不打草稿,直接就开写。很多作家写文章之前都要打草稿,更何况学生写论文呢,论文不是聊天,不需要逻辑只是打发时间,国外大学的论文是很严谨且需要逻辑性的东西,你必须言之有物同时逻辑严谨,不然怎们能说明你的论点,怎么能说服读者呢。

就像之前说的那样,很多同学没有留出时间来修改论文,匆忙的感觉是会透过文字传达给读者的,如果你能预留一些时间出来,从从容容的去修改一下论文,那你的文字里一定也透着一份淡定和大气,给读者的阅读感受一定也大不相同。所以,预留一些时间吧,修改一下自己的论文,就像你打扮好了要出门之前再照照镜子一样,一定会让你更加自信面对这一天。

以上就是关于Essay修改的一些建议,只有做好修改这一环节,Essay才不用愁,所以大家还是要花点功夫到修改上面。当然,如果大家不太会写Essay的话,可以看一下Essay一般的写作步骤


Criticism of western marxism

本篇paper代写- Criticism of western marxism讨论了西方马克思主义的批判性。西方马克思主义的发展的历程就是批判的历程,批判性是西方马克思主义哲学的根本属性。西方马克思主义在不断地批判与自我批判中发展和完善马克思主义。对第二国际的批判,捍卫了马克思主义的哲学本质;对第三国际的批判,使得马克思主义哲学真正全面地超越了近代西方哲学,成为实践的哲学;对现代西方哲学的批判,一方面肯定了哲学的世界观意义与本体论的存在意义,防止哲学陷入主观主义。本篇论文代写范文51due代写平台整理,供大家参考阅读。

At first, western marxism was regarded as the "heresy" of marxism. However, after decades of history, especially after the international socialist movement suffered serious setbacks today, western marxism still maintains vigorous vitality by virtue of its distinctive criticism.

In the 1920s, the victory of the Russian October revolution inspired a series of proletarian revolutions in central and eastern Europe. However, in sharp contrast to the success of the October revolution, the proletarian revolution in these countries started and ended without a final victory. Why can't the proletarian revolution become a global phenomenon? Why does capitalist society remain stable in the face of such powerful revolutionary forces? In view of these problems, some people think that Engels' distortion of marxist philosophy is the main reason, so they focus on criticizing the old interpretation path, and try to re-explain marxism. Merle ponty called this "left-leaning" trend western marxism in his 1955 book "the adventures of dialectics." Must note that the western marxist criticism of marxism, and is not a critique of Marx's thought, but a criticism of the traditional "marxism", known as the dialectical materialism and historical materialism, the textbook system, it mainly includes the second international marxism and third international marxism.

The core contradiction between the two sides is: is marxism philosophy or not? The second international theorists believe that marxism is not philosophy, and the main basis is the "annihilation philosophy" and "termination philosophy" put forward by Marx in his critique of Hegel's philosophy of law, which is obviously one-sided. First, Marx himself was unsparing in his praise of philosophy and was happy to pretend to be a philosopher. He commented that "any real philosophy is the spiritual essence of one's own time". The extermination and termination of philosophy mentioned by Marx is only his attitude towards philosophy, not enough to show that marxism is not philosophy. Secondly, Marx emphasized the importance of philosophy. He proposed that the proletariat is the material weapon of philosophy, while philosophy is the spiritual weapon of the proletariat. Obviously, Marx attached great importance to the important role of philosophy, so it is more difficult to deny the existence of marxist philosophy.

This simple and arbitrary view of the second international theorists deprived marxism of its guiding power in philosophy. They regard marxism as an objective law that must be followed in order to realize socialism and communism, and attempt to make it scientific and empirical, which ignores the subjective initiative of people, making marxism become rigid dogma, directly leading to the failure of proletarian revolution in many European countries. In the view of western marxism, philosophy is exactly where the vitality of marxism lies. To deny the philosophic nature, to regard marxist philosophy only as a social theory, will make marxism into an air house without foundation. Just as koersch said, "the dialectical materialism of Marx and Engels is, by its basic nature, an out-and-out philosophy and a revolutionary philosophy".

From today's point of view, western marxism's criticism of the second international marxism is of great significance. It opposes the wrong tendency of the second international to de-philosophize marxism, clarifies the philosophical identity of marxism, and keeps the foundation and lifeblood of marxism.

The third international marxism, or Leninism as we often call it, is one of the most influential marxist explanations in history. In China, this interpretation is still the most universal understanding of marxism.

One of the differences between the two sides is that third international marxism holds that marxism consists of marxist philosophy, marxist political economy and scientific socialism. Lenin once clearly pointed out that "marxism is the world view of the proletariat, a complete and rigorous scientific world view, and the theoretical weapon for the proletariat to understand and transform the world." He believed that marxism was the world outlook and guiding method of the proletariat's materialism, which emphasized the decisive position of matter in the relationship between matter and consciousness, and actively promoted the role of marxism as a revolutionary theory, instead of treating marxism only as philosophy. Western marxism, on the other hand, thinks that marxism is mainly philosophy. They oppose to equate marxist philosophy with Marx's economic theory, political theory and revolutionary theory. However, considering the historical background at that time, the third international marxist theorists' understanding of marxist content is based on the need to guide the construction and development of the socialist regime in the former Soviet union. Moreover, compared with the second international in terms of marxism, the third international admitted that the position of marxist philosophy, marxist philosophy of marxism does not deny that, as a way of being, only on the basis of the expansion of the content, so that is not enough to view with the theory of western marxism form the fundamental contradiction.

Western marxism's criticism of the third international marxism focuses on another difference between the two sides, that is, the relationship between thinking and existence. The third international marxism regards the relationship between thought and existence as the basic problem of marxist philosophy. We insist on the second principle of the primary consciousness of matter and think that human cognition is the reflection of objective reality. In the study of the development of human society, it is believed that the development of human society, like the development of nature, has its own objective laws, and the development of human society is the inevitability of objective laws. At the same time, they denied the existence of modern western philosophy. They believed that philosophy reached its peak with Hegel, and that philosophy after Hegel was meaningless and decadent capitalist philosophy. However, western marxist theorists point out that such an explanation obviously ignores Marx's series of discourses on "ending philosophy" and "eliminating philosophy", and the third international marxist philosophy is still not out of the scope of modern western philosophy. In fact, marxist philosophy is firmly opposed to the mechanical method of subject-object dichotomy. It emphasizes the dialectical unity between the subject-object and the subject-object, thus transcending the epistemology of modern western metaphysics. The third international marxist theorists' explanations obviously ignore the fundamental difference between marxism and modern western philosophy, and they still use the same set of methods of modern western philosophy to explain marxism. In his opinion, Lenin's thought was nothing more than a continuation of Hegel's, merely replacing the absolute existence of spirit with the absolute existence of matter. In western marxist view, marxism has been beyond the opposition between subject and object, and unifying thinking and exist in the practical activities of human society, as YuWu gold points out, "the relationship between thinking and existence problem is only a matter of knowledge of the basic theory of philosophy, but not all the basic philosophical problems, thus not marxist basic problems; As a philosophy of existentialism, the basic problem of marxism is practice. To sum up, western marxism's criticism of the third international marxism is of great significance. It makes marxist philosophy truly and comprehensively surpass modern western philosophy. This for our country great enlightenment to the study of marxist philosophy theory, especially in eastern Europe upheaval, the international socialist movement after the collapse of the Soviet union suffered a big blow to the background, a critical for us to realize marxism, master the real essence of Marx to guide the construction of socialism with Chinese characteristics and promote the sinicization of marxism is a nice surprise. It is under the inspiration of western marxists that more and more Chinese marxists join the ranks of "back to Marx".

Western marxism's criticism of the third international is actually a miniature of its criticism of modern western philosophy. In the view of western marxist theorists, marxist philosophy is a philosophy that comprehensively surpasses modern western philosophy, and marxism should at least be contemporary with modern western philosophy. Western marxist philosophy both recognizes and criticizes modern western philosophy.

First, they all oppose the metaphysical philosophy in modern western philosophy. On the one hand, "rejecting metaphysics" is a prominent feature of modern western philosophy. Positivism holds that the sphere of philosophy should be limited to the empirical world, and should not be concerned with areas that are beyond the observation of man. Voluntarianism opposes and criticizes abstract material or spiritual entities in metaphysics by emphasizing the function of human emotion and will. On the other hand, western marxism holds that Marx's transcendence of modern western philosophy is an absolute and comprehensive transcendence. It does not mean that Marx moves from one kind of absolute to another kind of absolute. It is not the so-called material absolute replacing the spiritual absolute, but the total transcendence of the thinking mode of the whole metaphysical absolutism. Second, they both oppose system philosophy. In modern western philosophy, the opposition to systematic philosophy is in line with its opposition to metaphysics. In the western marxist philosophy, there are also many theorists of anti-system philosophy, among which the most prominent is adorno, who elaborated on the attitude towards system in his negative dialectics. "The system is a negative objective, not a positive subject," he says. At one stage in history, in terms of the system's suitability for serious content, the system has been banished into the disreputable realm of poetic thought, leaving only the pale outline of an order schema. It is hard to imagine vividly what once drove the philosophical spirit to become a system." Finally, marxist philosophy, like modern western philosophy, tries to turn philosophy into the real life world and emphasizes the subjective initiative of people in real life.

Although there are so many similarities between western marxist philosophy and modern western philosophy, we must realize that there are essential differences between them. Western marxist philosophy still holds a critical attitude towards some parts of modern western philosophy. Otherwise, western marxism is not enough to be a philosophical thought independent of modern western philosophy.

Although they all oppose the metaphysical opposition of subject and object, they emphasize the unity of subject and object. However, the modern western philosophy, especially the existentialist philosophy, ignores the role of human practice while emphasizing the unity of subject and object. Western marxism believes that the unity of subject and object in modern western philosophy is only the unity of subject and object in form, which will inevitably fall into the mire of subjectivism. Western marxism believes that in the process of opposing systematic philosophy, western modern philosophy is so radical and one-sided that it negates philosophy as both world outlook and ontology. From the perspective of western marxist philosophy, philosophy as a world view is the most important meaning of philosophy, which cannot be cancelled; On the basis of both insisting that philosophy face the real life, western marxism criticizes the malpractice of modern western philosophy on people's life. According to the marxist point of view, the social practice of productive labor constitutes the basis of human life. However, modern western philosophy puts aside productive labor and talks about the whole of human life with empty "existence". Western marxism believes that the interpretation of modern western philosophy can not really grasp the existence of man, will inevitably fall back into idealism.

To sum up, the development process of western marxism is the process of criticism, which is the fundamental attribute of western marxist philosophy. Western marxism develops and improves marxism through continuous criticism and self-criticism. The criticism of the second international defends the philosophical essence of marxism; The criticism of the third international makes marxist philosophy truly and comprehensively surpass modern western philosophy and become practical philosophy. The criticism of modern western philosophy, on the one hand, affirms the world outlook meaning of philosophy and the existence meaning of ontology, and prevents philosophy from falling into subjectivism; On the other hand, to explain the life and existence of human beings by means of productive labor, marxism is regarded as a practical ontology and criticized existentialism for its empty talk of "existence" in disregard of social practice.

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Transformation and reconstruction of painting elements

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- Transformation and reconstruction of painting elements,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了绘画元素的转换与重建。绘画是多样式的,创作方法与创作思路是多样化的,艺术家对自己的创作有独特的理解和感悟。在这个信息技术高度发达的时代,收集得来的信息如果只是单纯的图片影像,并不能直接运用于绘画创作中,而如何将它们转换和重建就成了创作过程中的主要问题。将单纯的信息元素通过绘画手段转换成艺术元素,进而形成一种绘画艺术。重新建立在画面上服务于艺术创作思路和创作要求,既是真实的,又不是真实的存在,是绘画中的一部分,可随意穿插和添加更多的艺术元素。真实的部分会和其他元素产生冲突,进而使艺术形成冲突和对比,浓缩与提炼成为真正的艺术品。

painting element,绘画元素,英国代写,英国论文代写,essay代写

Art comes from life and is higher than life. There is no source and inspiration for artistic creation without prototypes or phenomena of life. Art is based on the prototype of life, but is not a simple portrayal of life, but the enrichment and refinement of life, it sometimes makes some things in life more pure, the ultimate. Life and artistic expression are inextricably linked. Through the processing of artistic means, concise language description, orderly arrangement of story plots, rendering, exaggeration, concentration of contradictions and other means to show more vivid, rich tension, more thought-provoking. Convert the information into a new symbol, and then put the symbol information together to complete the transformation, complete the processing and refining of life. How to express the new symbol in the form of creation, the transformation of this process is a process worthy of constant exploration. How to complete the transformation in a better way, how to think and understand the meaning of the transformation, how to play a role in the creation, and their own understanding of the creation process, transformation and reconstruction is a very worthy of learning thinking and expression.

Painting is diversified, creative methods and creative ideas are diversified, artists have a unique understanding and perception of their creation. It is undoubtedly an interesting and challenging opportunity to have a preliminary contact with creation and think hard about the needs and ideas of art. In this era of highly developed information technology, a large amount of information is transmitted through the network, and a large amount of information is filled in people's lives, so that people can learn more about the world and learn more. There are a lot of resources and information for collection and adoption. However, if the collected information is only a simple picture image, it cannot be directly applied to the painting creation, and how to transform and reconstruct them becomes the main problem in the creation process. The pure information element is transformed into artistic element through painting, and then a painting art is formed. Re-established on the picture serves the idea and requirements of artistic creation, which is both real and not real. It is a part of painting, and more artistic elements can be interspersed and added at will. The real part will conflict with other elements, so that the art forms conflict and contrast, condensing and refining into the real art.

A transformation is an element that converts one element of an object into another. "To rebuild" is to build, to build, to put things together. The transformation and reconstruction in art means that the original objective visual information elements are transformed into artistic elements through artistic means and methods, and then reconstituted into a creative method and process in the picture to collect, digest, transform and rebuild information.

Shift from these two words for art, the original form of things, and then will they form together, transformation of deformation before is no longer the meaning of things, but had the new change, but also changed the attribute, become pure, does not have meaning symbols and element, and elements of the change of many symbols and organization together. The collision of unrelated symbols produces a sharp contrast and contradiction, which becomes a new thing and meets the requirements of concentration and refinement. The archetypes of life need to be refined and condensed to become art, and transformation and reconstruction are a good way to do it, or almost the same. Living environment and factors are too insipid, without too much bulge and contradictions, there is no way to directly to highlight the theme of creation and implication, and the transformation and reconstruction well solve the problem of the creation, more elements together, will be life changing their original form and expression, then they have the organization to establish unified together. Originally seemingly unrelated things have produced contrast and contradiction under the organization of changing forms, and there are contradictions among various things. This way of transformation and reconstruction is more in line with the requirements of the living environment. Art needs conflict and contrast. It needs to extract and condense life, collect and transform it.

How to transform things and build them together, collage art provides good inspiration and guidance. Collage City, published by renowned architectural critic Colin Rowe in 1987, in a way illustrates the possibilities of Collage in our daily lives -- the City we live in is a Collage of multiple elements. "Painting is both art and life, neither of which can be done." The works of rauschenberg, the representative artist of pop art, are the result of many forms of transformation and reconstruction. The process of organizing elements into a single plane, known as collage, is known as transformation and reconstruction. Collage can enrich the picture, better organize the picture, and make a breakthrough in the single material, which is conducive to the composition and composition of the picture. The whole process of transformation and construction is completed by extracting, refining and transforming a lot of life prototypes, and then putting them together on a 2-d plane. The picture is intuitively organized to form a work, which increases the conflict and contradiction of the picture and provides the necessary conditions for artistic creation. The collage image is used as a symbol. In an era of rapid advances in information technology, photo shop plays an important role in organizing and screening creative works. Photo shop as a drawing software, one of its functions is to modify, add, and enrich pictures. At the beginning of creation, a large number of network information pictures were modified and added through photo shop according to the desired effect, and the image information was quickly converted into more intuitive elements, and a large number of intuitive elements were applied in the creation. The selected information does not directly achieve the transformation and reconstruction of art, but is still an objective visual picture. Therefore, through artistic means, such as pigments, integrated materials and other media, the pictures were added and modified, so that they not only retained the required visual effects but also added artistic elements, forming sketches and patterns in the early stage of creation. Using artistic means to reconstruct plays a role in guiding and determining the direction of the canvas.

The artistic expression of transformation and reconstruction is more of a constant exploration. The understanding and application of transformation and reconstruction is a long process, and artistic creation needs accumulation and learning.

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