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英文论文的论证方法分享

在英文论文的写作中,观点的论证是非常重要的,所以导师会格外地看重。而影响论证效果的因素主要是论证方法,不同的论证方法对观点的说服力是不同的,所以大家需要掌握多种论证方法,这样才能把观点的论证做好,下面就给大家分享一下英文论文的论证方法。

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数据最直观

列数据的论证方法是最直观和最具有说服力的技巧。往往一个经过调查得出的数据,能把你英文论文要证明的事物具体化,比说很多个道理都要有说服力。而英文论文得到相关数据就需要对资料进行有目的的查找,提高效率。

有比较才有突出

这里的比较可以是相同的,也可以是相反的事物进行比较。

相同的事物一起比较,称作comparison类比,这是英文论文拿有相同性质的、或有相同特点的两个事物来进行对照,从而找打相似性,利用相似物来突出原本事物。

相反的事物作比较,称为contrast对比,这是英文论文把两个完全不同的、或者说是相反的事物进行对比,从而通过与之相反的事物来突出原本事物。

而两者的共同目的都是为了突出原本事物的特性、本质或者作用。

恰当引用增强论证效果

往往英文论文写作目的是为了论证一个观点,那么英文论文在论证的过程中,就是通过各种不同的论证技巧来实现的。而除了利用自己知识积累和数据资料等,还可以引用。引用既可以是对一句或者一段名人名言的直接参考使用,也可以是对于一个观点和结论的利用,来佐证自己的观点论述。

比喻论证使抽象具体化

比喻论证顾名思义是利用一个比喻手法来论证一个观点的方法,拿比喻之形来论证被比喻之抽象。比喻论证的比喻者是形象的,能够被人直观理解的,而被比喻者是抽象的,是难以直接感受的,所以英文论文需要利用一个拥有共同一般特性的形象事物来进行论证。尽管是两种不同的事物,但是由于拿来进行比喻的点是两者之间的共性,所以英文论文能够得到更加具体的论证结果。

以上就是关于英文论文的论证方法分享,同学们不仅要知道这些论证方法,还要学会把它们运用到写作当中。

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Paper代写:The dual teaching model in Germany

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- The dual teaching model in Germany,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了德国的双元制教学模式。德国的双元制教学模式是来自于德国的一种职业培训模式,要求参加培训的工作人员要通过两个场所的培训合格之后才能上岗工作,一个场所是来至于职业院校的学习,其主要任务是学习与职业有关的专业知识;另一场所是企业等校外实训基地,其主要任务是让学生在企业里接受专业培训使之掌握工作所需的职业技能。在德国这种模式在企业中应用非常广泛,并且取得了很好的效果。

dual teaching,德国双元制教学模式,essay代写,paper代写,作业代写

The "dual system" teaching mode in Germany is a vocational training mode in Germany, which requires that the staff who participate in the training can only work after passing the training in two places. The other place is an off-campus training base such as an enterprise, whose main task is to let students receive professional training in the enterprise so that they can master the vocational skills needed for work. In Germany, this model is widely used in enterprises and has achieved good results. In recent years, it has been used for reference by some enterprises in China. The essence of German "dual system" teaching model is the deep cooperation between schools and enterprises. Let students grow in the atmosphere of the enterprise as soon as they enter the school, and become the professional technical talents needed by the enterprise when they graduate. Students' vocational skills training is completely consistent with the real production environment.

In the exploration and practice of school-enterprise cooperation mode, ulanqab vocational college gradually found that traditional school-enterprise cooperation also had various unfavorable factors, such as inaccurate orientation of talent training, imperfect training system and insufficient experimental training base. These unfavorable factors lead to the training of students can not master professional skills, after the post can not be well qualified for enterprise posts, need to be a long time of training time and labor. In order to cultivate high-quality skilled personnel meeting the market demand, the automobile detection and maintenance major of the department of mechanical and electrical technology of our college cooperated with zhongde nuohao company in 2014 to explore the localization of the "dual system" teaching mode in Germany. In 2014, according to the requirements of "zhongde nuohao" company, we built a comprehensive automobile repair training center, whose site layout and functional zoning fully simulate the automobile repair operation site, while considering the teaching needs to install multimedia, the training base can not only assume the theoretical teaching of automobile repair major but also simulate the comprehensive experiment and training room of practical training. In addition, a large number of experimental and practical training equipment has been purchased, which can fully meet the daily practical training needs of students. In addition, the school builds a skilled professional teaching team. The school learns from Germany's "dual system" to enhance teachers' practical ability and teaching ability, and arranges teachers to go out for training every winter and summer vacation to improve teachers' practical ability through enterprise practice. Moreover, the school introduces part-time teachers from enterprises and teachers from schools to work together as a teaching team to complete the teaching. Make them competent teachers of "dual system" localization teaching. In addition, the reform of curriculum system and teaching content makes the precise combination of theory and practice. Teaching is carried out in the form of project, so that students realize the importance of practical skills and arrange the time of students' practice and training reasonably. The reasonable setting of teaching content and practice content makes students become the main body of teaching and improves students' practical ability. Through investigation and interview, to understand the work process, post setting and practical skill requirements of each post of automobile repair enterprise, and analyze the tendency of enterprise to recruit staff working hours and enterprise school-enterprise cooperation intention. From the perspective of schools, students and enterprises, students' practical skills should be cultivated to improve the professional curriculum system based on project process.

Through the localization of "dual system" teaching mode in Germany, students have obtained high vocational skills and employment quality has been improved very well. From the school's employment survey feedback, the majority of graduates in Beijing auto repair enterprises work salary and welfare benefits. The enterprise also reported that the vocational skills and comprehensive quality of "middle and durban" students are very high. Basically, they can take the post without intensive training, which greatly reduces the cost of the enterprise and has a high degree of enterprise satisfaction. For the major of automobile repair in our school, the localization of "dual system" teaching mode strongly promotes the curriculum reform and the construction of training base. In the long-term localization of the "dual system" teaching mode, the teachers participating in the "zhongdenuo hao class" have improved their practical ability, teaching methods and means significantly. In the implementation of "dual system" teaching mode localization training, most teachers have also obtained a variety of qualifications, achieving the training goal of professional teachers' dual quality. Germany "dual system" teaching mode localization adhere to small class teaching no more than 30 people in each class, in the teaching of teachers to truly personalized guidance of students, to achieve the goal of teaching students in accordance with their aptitude. Moreover, daily teaching in the teaching place of "integration of science and practice" can immediately carry out practical practice of theoretical knowledge learned, and acquire knowledge quickly and firmly. Compared with students of other major classes in the school, students of "middle durban" have strong practical ability and bright employment prospects.

The exploration of localization of "dual system" teaching mode in Germany not only improves students' enthusiasm and initiative in learning but also contributes a lot to the improvement of teachers' teaching level. It will play an active guiding role in improving the teaching quality of our college.

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英文论文的选题分析

在英文论文的写作中,选题一定要最重要的,没有之一。一个好的选题,是一篇高质量英文论文的基础。想想也知道,如果选择一个平淡无趣的主题,可能自己都下不去了,所以更不用说读者的感受。那么英文论文的选题需要注意什么呢?下面就给大家讲解一下。

英文论文选题分析,英文论文选题,英国代写,essay代写,paper代写

首先要知道选题的重要性

1.选题能决定英文论文的阅读价值。导师在某一方面的知识面是很广的,研究也是有深度的,所以如果对新的有价值的选题肯定特别有兴趣。

2.选题能够规划文章的方向、角度和规模,弥补知识储备的不足。对于所搜集的资料进行整理,加固积累,加深理解,对于分散的思想进行选择、鉴别和几种,最后对文章进行整体轮廓的勾勒。

3.合适的选题可以保证写作的顺利进行,提高研究能力。选题是英文论文写作的第一步,需要积极思考,适当的选题能够使论文写作过程进行得比较顺利。

有的留学生也反映,都知道选题很重要,如果第一步就没做好,后面肯定就无法进行了。

1.考虑写作过程。在确定选题的时候虽然有些新颖的观点固然可以吸引到是的眼球,但是有的学生提出的新观点水平太高,比如本科阶段提出了一个研究生水平的观点(这种情况是存在的),可是学生的知识储备不够,语言表达得也不精练、准确、专业,结果弄巧成拙。也有的学生提出的观点自己在论证时就感觉到不是很可信。所以,在选题、提出观点的时候要考虑到写作过程,稳中求新。

2.注重平时积累。所谓先发制论文,在平常的学习生活中多多少少留些时间多看书,包括参考文献之类的,做好笔记,归类整理,及时作总结。长期积累,心里就很清楚哪些是可疑的,值得新研究的,哪些是擅长的等等。

以上就是关于英文论文写作选题的讲解,希望同学们在写作英文论文的时候都能选择一个好的主题,这样才能机会拿到高分。

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Paper代写:Judge's disciplinary action

本篇paper代写- Judge's disciplinary action讨论了法官惩戒事由。法官惩戒事由的实体范畴是指法官应当在什么情况下受到惩戒的问题。对此,世界各法治国家均表现出了对法官惩戒事由的重视,出于共同的制度愿景,结合自身司法传统、法治观念、法官职业化程度等司法条件的差异性,在法官惩戒事由的确定上形成了行为到结果和法内到法外两种不同的模式。本篇paper代写51due代写平台整理,供大家参考阅读。

The substantive category of judge's disciplinary cause refers to the issue under which judge should be punished. To this, the world each country under the rule of law are showed to the attention of the judges disciplinary proceedings, for a common vision system, combined with its own legal tradition, the concept of the rule of law, the judge professionalism, the difference of the judicial conditions, such as on the determination of the judge disciplinary proceedings formed "behavior - result" and "outside the law - in" two kinds of different patterns.

The behavior-outcome model refers to the determination of judge's disciplinary causes based on judge's behavior and judgment results, which are respectively incorporated into two sets of systems and adopted different identification standards. Some countries only include behaviors as disciplinary causes, such as the United Kingdom and the United States, which can be called the single-track system of disciplinary causes of judges. Some countries put the two into disciplinary causes respectively, such as Germany, which can be called the dual-track system of disciplinary causes for judges.

The monorail system of judge's disciplinary cause refers to the mode of imputation that only includes judge's behavior into disciplinary cause and has a judgment standard for judge's improper behavior, and at the same time completely exempts judge's error from liability, which is typical of common law countries. The United States has two sets of judge punishment systems at the federal and state levels. However, except for some crimes that constitute crimes, the standard of "improper conduct" stipulated in the model code of judicial conduct formulated by the American bar association is adopted for the purposes of judicial punishment, that is, all the activities of a judge must avoid improper and seemingly improper. In the judgment of misconduct, the standard of "credibility" is adopted, that is, whenever a judge's behavior impairs the public's trust in judges and confidence in judicial justice, no matter when and where such behavior takes place, no matter how large or small, it will all fall into the category of violation of professional discipline and should be punished. The ruling is a disciplinary exclusion zone for U.S. judges, meaning they are not punished for substantive issues related to the ruling. Similar to the United States, the issues that can be investigated by the British judicial conduct investigation office mainly focus on various improper behaviors of judges, while those that cannot be investigated focus on substantive issues related to the results of judges 4. It can be seen that the UK also excludes substantive issues from the disciplinary causes of judges, and only includes judges' behaviors into the disciplinary causes and adopts "public trust" as the judgment standard of misconduct.

America and Britain is the birthplace of the modern concept of rule of law, the judicial system is based on a relatively ideal condition, the judge retribution for behavior change is the inevitable outcome of the modern rule of law concept extension under, such as the principle of judicial independence, judge professionalism, concept of due process and so on all has become the consensus of the country under the rule of law concept, but in Anglo-American countries relatively is attaining the unity of theory and practice.

Judicial independence plays an important role in the judicial system of Anglo-American law system. Professor geweibao put forward a thinking framework when thinking about the contradiction between independence and responsibility: "since experience tells us that judicial independence is absolutely necessary but relatively fragile, it is right to insist on independence as the starting point and regard all appropriate forms of accountability system as the necessary limitation of the independence principle. The most important words are "starting with independence" and "necessary". Entity referee results if the case will be affect the vital interests of the judge whether to be held accountable, judge the heart that had been injected with the process of the law to other factors and damaged the judge independent basic status, the judge has formed the verdict will judging through outside the program again, this is considered to the judge's discretion to review, serious threat to the independence of the judge. The erosion of the independent exercise of the judicial power of judges will cause a real and serious crisis of confidence not only for judges but also for the whole judicial system compared with the occasional error of the judicial entity results. Therefore, all system design should not harm the independent jurisdiction of judges, is to "take independence as the starting point". The judge's behavior involves the most direct feelings of the public, and is also a representation of the judge's own professional integrity, which directly affects the public's trust in judicial justice, and has a more direct, extensive and far-reaching impact on judicial credibility. Therefore, judges should be cautious in their words and actions at all times, and it is "necessary" to punish all judge behaviors that affect judicial credibility.

The formation of the British and American national judges professional group means that its overall quality at a higher level, the public believe that people with higher a liberal education is full of wisdom, legal specialized trained people with excellent legal skills and good professional ethics, thus believe that the judge can shoulder the burden of private rights protection is particularly important. The behavior of a judge is the representation of his inner character. The improper behavior and anomy of a judge indicate his bad character, which means that the foundation of law and the rule of law is shaken, and the judge must face the possibility of being punished. The judges with high overall quality have obtained the public's trust in their professional ability because of their superb legal skills to minimize wrong judgments and use their profound professional skills to create judgments that can stand public examination. When the height of the judges professionalization have the trust of the public on their behavior ability, the inevitable referee mistakes will be for the common good of its behavior should be understanding and forgiving, combined with national special wash the case for this program and the state compensation of the vicarious liability system, make the occasional mistake will not affect the judgement of judicial credibility generally maintained.

In addition, under the influence of the litigant mode, the Anglo-American law system emphasizes the active role of the litigant and his defense lawyer. Comparatively speaking, the judge maintains a relatively neutral position, and only makes the judgment on the basis of listening to the opinions of both sides, showing a passive characteristic. Accordingly, both parties feel that their opinions have been fully expressed and listened to and accepted by the judge, and they have reason to believe that the judge's decision is made on the basis of their own full defense. Therefore, their trust in the verdict depends on procedural matters such as whether their right of defense is limited and whether the neutral status of the judge is affected, that is, whether the judge's behavior conforms to the requirements of due process. If the judge's trial behavior fails to meet or exceeds the requirements of due process, it means that the judge's conduct and integrity will be questioned and the public's trust in the judiciary will be shaken. Then the standard of judicial punishment should be that the judge's misconduct constitutes a violation of due process. "Judicial activities are carried out by certain organizations specially established by the state in accordance with certain procedures, and their credibility is mainly reflected in the specific process. Because the public's understanding and evaluation of the judiciary is mainly completed through the perception of its specific process, as far as judicial judging activities are concerned, it mainly comes from the theatrical effect of judicial trials. Common law countries the independence of the judicature concept entrenched, judges, high degree of professionalism and principles of due process contributed to judge disciplinary proceedings monorail system mode, only the behavior of the judge should be brought into the punishment and the credibility standard to evaluate the behavior, to judge the possibility of miscalculation made by the appeals process as punishment for the area.

The dual-track system of judge disciplinary causes means that not only the misconduct of the judge may be punished, but also the substantive result of the judgment is wrong and the judge may be punished. The two systems adopt different judgment standards. Typical of Germany is the continental law system. The German criminal code prohibits judges from committing two ACTS: accepting money or other bribes, coercing evidence and forging documents; A wrong judgment that brings an innocent person to justice. Both ACTS are considered judicial ACTS that seriously undermine public confidence in the court as an institution of justice. For the latter, however, only those who intentionally commit the crime or whose innocence is caused by gross negligence are sentenced in principle subject to punishment. In the judgment of misconduct, Germany adopts a standard of public trust similar to that of Anglo-American law system countries. As stipulated in its law of judges, "a judge shall not damage his trust in impartiality and independence, whether in or outside the jurisdiction." In Germany, judges have been punished for their intemperate, contemptuous criticism of a prosecutor's or another court's ruling, or for making sweeping statements in judicial opinions about political parties' incompetence or corruption. In terms of the significance of judge's behavior to judicial credibility, Germany and Britain and the United States have a high degree of consensus. Therefore, the punishment of judge's behavior does not include time, place and occasion, but only requires the objective effect that damages judicial credibility.

The disciplinary system of German judges is different from that of British and American countries in that there is no absolute exemption for the case of wrong judgment result, which is caused by the difference of litigation mode between British and American law systems and continental law systems. In contrast to the relatively passive nature of the judge in the U.S. trial process, "the judge carefully studies the dossier the prosecutor hands over, actively questions the defendant and decides on the witness list. German lawyers are relatively passive in court... ". This reflects the civil law countries to judge the role of the main authority model, since the judge has a broader power, the corresponding accountability should be more stringent. This is consistent with the principle of power and responsibility. However, civil law countries, like common law countries, highly believe in the independence of judges as the basis for the survival of the entire judicial system. Judge, therefore, although the Anglo-American countries have more than the absolute dominance, but the process belongs to the core areas of discretion inviolability, still wrong punishment must and judge the result of the referee ability when there is a direct causal relationship between subjective fault into disciplinary reason concerns category, resolutely resist with only the judgement mistakes and punishment to the judge, it is in the protection of judicial independence and to maintain a balance between judicial credibility measure.

At the same time, the strengthening of the role of judges by the litigation mode of civil law countries' authoritativeness makes Germany extremely strict on the quality of judges, and sets a higher admission standard for the selection and appointment of judges, which provides a higher guarantee for the overall quality of judges. In addition to the inviolability of the principle of judicial independence, there are few cases in which judges intentionally or negligently lead to wrongful cases in these countries, and few judges are subject to punishment. Therefore, the case of punishing the judge for the wrong result of the judgment is at most a preventive setting under the mode of authority litigation, which is not often started in practice. Model with the authority of the civil law countries make the judge need to assume more responsibility, and formed the judge disciplinary proceedings will commence, namely misconduct disciplinary USES credibility to the judge standard of objective imputation principle, and the results of the entity's punishment must be asked a judge to have both subjective imputation of has led to judge the result. Although the two models differ in the choice of whether the judgment result should be included in the punishment, they both attach great importance to the fundamental principle of judge independence, take a prudent attitude to the consideration of "error of substantive judgment result", and put forward higher requirements for the judge's behavior both inside and outside the judicial system.

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Essay代写:Ancient Greek idea of justice

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- Ancient Greek idea of justice,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了古希腊的正义思想。古希腊的正义观念由来已久,据《荷马史诗》记载,正义是人间和神界的最高准则,宙斯是普遍正义的监护者。希腊语中,正义来源于狄刻的名字。而因为当时的希腊还没有成文法,所以习惯法就变成了正义的体现,正义代表的就是习惯法的基础和准则。不遵守法律就是对正义的蔑视与否定,会受到神明的惩罚。

Ancient Greek concept of justice has a long history, according to the "Homer epic" records, justice is the highest principle of the world and god, Zeus is the guardian of universal justice. Zeus punished any individual who tried to take too much, or who tried to destroy order by force and cunning, or who accepted the work of god in a bad way, or who did not do the right thing in accordance with god's work. Later, Zeus's daughter dickse took over his duties and was made the goddess of justice. The Greek word for "justice" comes from dickard's name. Because there was no written law in Greece at that time, customary law became the embodiment of justice, and "justice" represented the basis and criterion of customary law. Failure to obey the law is contempt and denial of justice, punishable by divine punishment. It can be said that "in the ancient Greek and Roman period, the concept of natural law was formed from the beginning to the final formation. Although it changed several times, the pursuit of justice was always its eternal theme".

Pythagoras, a mysterious philosopher, came to know the world from "Numbers". He used the number "4" to represent justice. He believed that "4" was the most harmonious number, so "justice is harmony". But at the same time he divided the citizens into three classes, and he said that harmony could be achieved by each man in his own place, and political justice could be achieved by different ways of governing according to different classes of people. Obviously, his concept of justice is difficult for us modern people to understand, but it can be seen that Pythagoras actually safeguard the interests of slave owners, support the aristocratic rule, his justice is the slave owners of the class of justice. Heraclitus, the reclusive philosopher, agreed that justice requires harmony, but he believed that the only way to achieve "harmony and justice" was war. Harmony can only be achieved through war. But because he was of royal birth, he defended the interests of the slave-owning nobility and the strict hierarchy, just as Pythagoras did. He believed that the will of the ruler was justice. The discussion of justice as the core of the idea begins with Socrates. Socrates believed that justice is equal, is worth pursuing with people's life, is the most noble virtue. His justice is inextricably bound up with abiding by the law. Abiding by the law means that citizens should abide by the laws of their own country. These laws are the agreements made by citizens together, which is the highest guiding principle of the city-state. Citizens must strictly abide by the laws. He even lived it out with his own death. After being put in prison, Socrates could have escaped with the help of his students, but he refused to obey the law of the city. His argument was that he was condemned by the law, and that if he fled, the laws made by the citizens of the city would not be enforced. When the law loses its authority, justice no longer exists. Because all laws are just, even if there is an "evil law", it is because people do not realize it is evil, "no one intends to do evil", therefore, the "evil law" should be observed. In the end, Socrates chooses generosity to die. His relentless pursuit of justice deeply influenced his disciple Plato.

Plato regards justice as the starting point and foothold of his philosophy. One might even say that the republic is a book about justice. In the opening pages of the republic, clafalus and Socrates discuss the philosophical proposition, "what is justice?", and the answer unfolds in subsequent volumes. "The goal of the republic is to build a harmonious city-state on the basis of a certain idea of justice, which enables individuals and societies to become harmonious." So how can justice bring harmony to the city? Plato, like his predecessors Pythagoras and Heraclitus, divided citizens into three classes: rulers who governed the city, soldiers who defended the city, and ordinary citizens engaged in productive labor. These three classes corresponded to three kinds of souls: reason, passion, and desire. In the book, each level of the citizens have the corresponding figure: in the republic first appearance of the characters, "g fallows spent a lifetime insatiable skill, he care about is to meet your body needs, he represents the soul of the sexual desire pearl telemachus original meaning is the name of" the warlords ", he is full of honor and loyalty, he represents the flesh part of the soul. Thrasimajos, a visiting intellectual, who wishes to educate, foreshadowed what the republic calls the soul of reason." In the character to come back later, their characteristics and representative of the class more exaggerated, "the pursuit of happiness of the hedonist adriano mentos and ferocious war-like glaucon, and of course a philosopher Socrates' minds, the two brothers with Socrates represent a key part of the soul, the desire, blood gas, and rational." Are the demands of justice the same for all three classes of citizens? Plato does that one by one. First of all, for the ordinary citizen, "debt is justice"; But clafalos' son, polemarcus, was more concerned, arguing that "justice is a just reward for everyone". That is to say, justice is good for friends and bad for enemies. So justice is being loyal to your family and friends. It's a kind of loyalty, "a patriotic feeling that citizens of one country have for each other that they don't have elsewhere." Later, thrasimajos and Socrates debated the question of "what is justice?" thrasimajos believed that "justice is nothing but the interest of the strong" and "justice is the interest of the government of the time." That is to say, he sees justice as right. Socrates contradicts him by saying, if justice is the interest of the strong, can the strong not make mistakes? Don't the strong need to study knowledge to understand where their interests lie? This objection was later taken up by his disciple Plato and developed into the famous proposition "virtue is knowledge". You can see, in the first volume of the republic, Socrates refutes all sorts of notions of justice, but he doesn't have a precise definition of what justice is. In the second volume, glaucon says, "the essence of justice is a compromise between the best and the worst -- the best is to do evil with impunity; the worst is to suffer without revenge." Such is the nature and origin of justice. For glaucon, Socrates did not say whether agree with, but think they should "imagine the growth of a city, we can also see where the growth of justice and injustice", "than the micro discussion of individual justice, why don't we go to see a city-state, justice, this can help us better understand: what is justice among an individual." In the republic, one of Plato's central metaphors is the similarity between the city-state and the soul. As long as the city-state is in harmony, the individual soul can be in harmony, and the corresponding idea of justice can be in harmony. On how to achieve harmony, Socrates says, "all the citizens, without exception, should be assigned to each man what he is naturally fit to do, so that each man will have his own way of life, and one man will be one man and not many, so that the city will be one and not divided." That is to say, "justice is made up of all the people and things who do their jobs in their best jobs." As long as the producers, guardians and rulers of the city-states can do their own things well, coordinate with each other, each of their own positions, each of them can achieve individual justice. The corresponding three levels of soul can also achieve soul justice. The city-state, in which each man has his own duty, is just, and each citizen has his own virtue: the ruler has wisdom, the protector's virtue is courage, and the producer's virtue is temperance. And justice is the highest of all virtues. Therefore, in Plato's philosophy, justice is his ultimate pursuit. Justice is the harmony of temperance, courage and wisdom. Aristotle took the question of justice as the core of his political philosophy. Unlike Plato, Aristotle deals with justice primarily in economic and legal terms, not in political terms. "The two meanings of justice," he argues, "are law abiding and equality." And the concrete justice and its corresponding ACTS are divided into two categories. "One is justice in the distribution of honour, money, or other separable common wealth. The other is equity that corrects in private transactions." First, "justice means giving people what they deserve, giving everyone what they deserve." So what does one deserve? Aristotle says it depends on what we allocate. Because "justice consists of two factors: 'the goods and the people who receive them'." So, distributive justice involves an equal problem. And "unfair people and unfair things are not equal things are not equal, there is obviously a moderate between inequality and inequality, this is equality." That is to say, since there is moderation in the matter of equality, there must be moderation in the matter of justice. And equality is at least equality between two things, and justice is at least justice between two people. Justice, therefore, consists of at least four parts. "For there are two things connected with justice, and two things connected. Moreover, there should be equal equality between these two people and between these two things. For as two persons are to one another, so two things are to one another." Complaints occur only when equal people have an unequal share, or unequal people have an equal share. "So justice is in proportion." Because justice consists of four parts, that is, four proportional terms, and distributive justice is to make sure that the ratio of two people is the same as the ratio of two things. Aristotle's political purpose is to live a good life, so it is certainly just for those who have excellent civic virtues, for those who help the city to live a good life, so that they have the right to equal pay. Thus, "the essence of distributive justice is what each deserves." Corrected justice is different from distributive justice in that distributive justice follows geometric proportions while corrected justice follows arithmetic proportions. Corrective justice does not consider the value of the parties, does not consider whether they have contributed to the common good of the state, "it only asks whether one has done injustice and the other has been wronged; If one party does something hurtful, the other party gets hurt." Then go to the judge for arbitration, because the judge is the intermediary between the parties and justice. The judge "restores equality to the profits of the wrongdoer and compensates the victims", that is to say, correctional justice is a kind of justice in the legal level. There are, of course, parts of Aristotle's view of justice that are not understood in modern society. He defended slavery as just because it satisfied two conditions of justice: necessary and natural. Aristotle argued that since citizens spend so much time participating in political life that they have no time to take care of their household chores, someone must take care of the necessities of life so that citizens can freely participate in politics. In addition, he argues, "there are people who are naturally suited to this role." There are those who are born to be slaves, for whom "slavery by nature" is better than citizenship. Of course, Aristotle's thoughts were inseparable from the social environment, political system and economic situation of Greece at that time. Those incorrect thoughts have been eliminated in the long history, and the essence of them has been inherited and developed by later philosophers. His thoughts on distributive justice are profound and great, which deeply influenced Hume and other philosophers and still play a role to this day.

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